Cambridge University


 It is the second oldest university in the English-speaking world after Oxford University, and one of the seven ancient universities in the British Isles. The university is located in Cambridge, United Kingdom. It ranked first on the world university rankings according to the 2010 QS classification, surpassing Harvard for the first time in 7 years. It is considered one of the most distinguished universities in the world. It was founded in 1209. It is a member of the Russell Group of Universities and a member of the Association of European Research Universities and always ranks first and second alternately with the prestigious Oxford University. It is considered the most prestigious university in the world in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and physics.


The university has won 89 Nobel Prizes, more than any other university in the world. The university has produced some of the most important scientists in the past centuries, including: Isaac Newton (the theory of gravity), Charles Darwin (the theory of evolution), William Harvey, Dirac, Joseph Thomson (the discoverer of the electron), Ernest Rutherford, James Maxwell, James Watson and Francis Crick (the structure of DNA), Alan Turing, Jacob Bronofsky and others.

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King's College Church The familiar scene of the university to the general public

Cambridge's standing was enhanced by a charter drawn up in 1231 by King Henry III of England which granted the university the right to discipline its members, as well as some exemptions from taxes. Pope Gregory IX issued a papal bull giving Cambridge graduates the right to teach everywhere in Christendom.


After Cambridge was described as a medieval university in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, and confirmed by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for scholars from medieval European universities to come and visit Cambridge to study or to give lectures.


Establishment of colleges

Cambridge colleges were originally an occasional feature of the system. No college is older than the university itself.


Hugh Balsham, the archbishop, founded Butterhouse College in 1284, Cambridge's first college. Many colleges were established during the 14th and 15th centuries, and the establishment of colleges continued over the centuries into modern times, although there is a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex College in 1596 and Downing College in 1800. However, the last college (Robinson) Established in the late seventies. However, to be achieved, however, Hammerton College was recognized as a full college in March 2010, making it the latest college to join Cambridge (where it was previously an accredited association of the university).


In the Middle Ages, colleges were founded urging their students to pray for the souls of the founders. For this reason it is often associated with churches or monasteries. A change of emphasis on colleges occurred in 1536 with the dissolution of the monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to dissolve a college of canon law and stop teaching "scholastic philosophy". The colleges responded by changing their curricula away from canon law and toward classics, the Bible, and mathematics.


And nearly a century later, the university was at the center of the last Christian divide. Many nobles, intellectuals, and even common folk saw the ways of the Church of England as being too similar to the Catholic Church and moreover that they were used by the Crown to usurp the legitimate powers of the counties. East Anglia was the center of what became the Protestant Reformation and in Cambridge, particularly strong at Emmanuel, St Catherine's Hall, Sussex Sydney and Christ's College), produced many "non-conformist" graduates who were greatly influenced, by social status or pulpit, and Puritans who left about 20,000 for New England, especially the Massachusetts Bay Colony, during the Great Migration decade of 1630.


Maths

From the time of Isaac Newton in the later 17th century until the mid-19th century, the university continued a strong focus on applied mathematics and mathematical physics in particular. Studying this subject was mandatory for graduation, and students were required to take an examination for the Bachelor of Arts, the first basic degree at Cambridge University in both the arts and sciences. This exam is known as Tripos.


Despite the diversity in research fields, the university continues to maintain its strength in mathematics, and its graduates have won eight medals and a Fields Medal.

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